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Density of various wood species

Density of various wood species

Lumber is sold in various forms, sizes, types and cuts. These characteristics are used to describe the different types of wood lumber. Certain projects may require one or more of these specific traits.

Density: The strength and weight of wood is its density. Denser wood is best for furniture and building, while less dense wood can be used in making aircrafts, woodworking projects and even making paper.

Texture: Texture is the wood property that determines the condition of the surface and its stability. It plays an important role in deciding how a wood is finished.

Color: Color contributes to the personality of wood. For example, red cedar will give you a very different look and character than white pine.

Woodgrain: Each tree has its own grain pattern, so two boards of the same species can look very different. Woodgrain is the direction in which the wood cell fibers grow. These variances in grain direction can have a significant impact on your project.

The density of wood differs depending on tree species and tree growth environment. Even the parts of the tree have different densities: branches usually have a lower wood density compared to the trunk.

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Wood density influences timber classification and scheduling for appropriate use. This table gives information about the relationship between timber hardness and density.

*The data used are for air-dry density, that is, the wood at 12% moisture content, which is the average equilibrium moisture content for internal environments in Queensland.

Font: qtimber Queensland Government

For many end uses, density variation is at least as important as the average density. Variability is most obvious at a species level, where big differences are recognized and published (USDA 1999) often arising from characteristic patterns originating at the individual growth ring level. For instance, earlywood values are typically in the range 200–400 kgm−3 compared to latewood values of 600–900 kgm−3 (Fig. 1) (Josza and Middleton 1994). Users are very conscious of the inherent variability of wood density within species and even within individual tree stems, and a great deal of research has looked at this aspect.

Font: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janka_hardness_test

References

  • www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/wood-density
  • www.lowes.com/n/buying-guide/lumber-buying-guide
  • www.engineeringtoolbox.com/wood-density-d_40.html
  • www.mtcopeland.com/blog/wood-density-explained-plus-wood-density-chart/
  • qtimber.daf.qld.gov.au/guides/wood-density-and-hardness
  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janka_hardness_test
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